International Performance Resilience and Efficiency Program:

 Training to Improve Use of Force Decision Making 

Law enforcement is a demanding career characterized by frequent confrontations and sometimes life-threatening situations (e.g., graphic crime scenes, domestic violence, abused children, violent perpetrators). When facing a threat, the body normally responds by going into a “fight-or-flight” mode, in which a host of physiological and psychological processes are invoked to help the individual deal with the threat. For example, heart rate increases, blood flows to major muscles necessary for fighting or fleeing, digestion stops, and a person becomes less sensitive to pain. 

During life threat, the instintual fight or flight response is extreme and often results in cognitive and sensory disortions such as tunnel vision, auditory exclusion, a slowing of time perception and problems with working memory. These disortions can have a negative impact on use of force decision making during police encounters. 

Our research is focused on the development and refinement of evidence based Use of Force (UOF) Training programs that police organizations can adopt. To this end, we have created a team of police UOF experts and scientists specializing in the psychological and physical aspects of performance during stress. 

The International Performance Resilience and Efficiency Program (iPREP) trains use-of-force trainers and first responders on methods that improve mental and physical readiness in high-stress situations. Through effective, evidence-based resilience training, iPREP enhances situational awareness leading to improved critical decision making.

The iPREP UOF training in a nutshell

** Psychoeducation on stress and performance

** Personalized Physiological Training Integrated into Intenisve Scenario Based UOF Training

This includes real-time heart rate monitoring, biofeedback, tactical breathing, and physiological control techniques.

** Mental Toughness

Strategies that improve mental acuity, situational awareness and cognitive and physical performance. 



To find out more or inquire about how you can participate in this training, visit the iPREP website for more information: or



Andersen, J. P., & Gustafsberg, H. (2016). A training method to improve police use of force decision making: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Police Emergency Response. Open Access: DOI forthcoming.
Andersen, J. P., Dorai, M., Papazoglou, K., & Arnetz, B. B. (2016). Diurnal and reactivity measures of cortisol in response to intensive resilience and tactical training among special forces police. Journal of Occupational and Emergency Medicine. DOI forthcoming.
Andersen, J. P., Papazoglou, K., & Collins, P. I. (2016). Reducing robust health-relevant cardiovascular stress responses among active-duty Special Forces Police. General Medicine. Open Access: DOI forthcoming.
Andersen, J. P., Pitel, M., Weerasinghe, A., & Papazoglou, K. (2016). Highly realistic scenario based training simulates the psychophysiology of real world use of force encounters: Implications for improved police Officer Performance. Journal of Law Enforcement. Open Access: DOI forthcoming.
Andersen, J.P. & Papazoglou, K. (2016). Serving those who Serve: Police Health Professionals’ Knowledge and Practices in Educating Officers about Trauma and Health. Journal of Law Enforcement. 
Andersen, J. P., *Papazoglou, K., Gustafsberg, H., Collins, P., & Arnetz, B. (2016). Mental preparedness training. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Open Access:March (2016).
Andersen, J. P., Papazoglou, K., Nyman, M., Koskelainen, M., & Gustafsberg, H. (2015). Fostering resilience among police. Journal of Law Enforcement. Open Access: 2161-0231, 5 (1).
Andersen, J. P., *Papazoglou, K., Arnetz, B. B., & Collins, P. I. (2015). Mental Preparedness as a Pathway to Police Resilience and Optimal Functioning in the Line of Duty. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. Open Access 17(3); PP 624-627, ISSN 1522-4821.

Andersen, J. P., & *Papazoglou, K. (2015). Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction Among Police Officers: An Understudied Topic. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. Open Access ISSN 1522-4821.

Andersen, J.P., *Papazoglou, K., Koskelainen, M., & Nyman, M. (2015). Knowledge and Training Regarding the link between Trauma and Health: A National Survey of Finnish Police Officers. Journal of Police Emergency Response. Open Access: DOI: 10.1177/2158244015580380